Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes The latest estimates are that a human cell, a eukaryotic cell, contains some 21,000 genes. Thermoregulation. Symptoms of low blood sugar can occur suddenly. After reading these notes you will learn about: 1. Symptoms of low blood sugar can occur suddenly. In a transcription unit, the activity of RNA polymerase at a given promoter is in turn regulated by interaction with accessory proteins which can act both positively (activators) and … During hot conditions hot center in the hypothalamus is activated by increase in blood temperature. Enabling organisms to get rid of body wastes and useless materials for example excess water and salts, Enabling organisms to get rid of excess materials for example excess water and salts, Temperature regulation (thermoregulation), Convection – This is flow of heat from the interior of an animal’s body to exterior in the surrounding, Sweating/Evaporation – This occurs when animal loose water vapour from their body surface, Conduction – This is transfer of heat by physical contact between two bodies, Ectothermic animals example fish migrate to places with a more suitable temperature for them, Use of shade – snakes, frogs, lizards take shade to avoid being over heated, Pant – turtles and tortoise pant during hot day to loose excess heat, Burrow – toads burrow during cold conditions to avoid over cooling, Bask – snakes, lizards and chameleons bask in the sun to raise their body temperature, Social behavior – bees cluster together to raise body temperature, Flex their body muscles e.g. Maintaining favorable condition such as pH and required ionic concentration for the functioning of cells, tissues and organs. Some other causes of low blood sugar include: Mildly low blood sugar levels are somewhat common for people with diabetes; however, severely low blood sugar levels can be life-threatening. Heavy clothes create layer of air between the body’s surface and the clothes. 2. in biology, the adaptation of form or behavior of an organism to changed conditions. squirrels and bats during cold condition. These mechanisms help maintain body temperature, blood sugar levels, blood thyroxin levels, blood thyroxin levels, … between endothermic and bladder) where the animal is surrounded by warm sea circular muscles open blood vessels near the body surface. The central problem for a living thing is to maintain a steady state internally in the force of an often harsh and fluctuating external environment. Immediate treatment is critical. Increase in metabolic activity. . eukaryotic gene regulation - much more complex than in prokaryotes DNA arranged in chromatin >> makes protein-DNA interactions difficult transcription/translation occurs in 2 places basal transcription factors - used for making transcription apparatus, getting RNA pol II to promoter Blood sugar in mammals is regulated using hormones, which are insulin and Glucagon. 2.Regulation of electrolyte concentrations: The concentration of electrolytes like Sodium, Potassium, Chloride Bicarbonates etc in blood also regulated. Wearing of heavy black clothes: During cold conditions human being put on heavy clothes, examples sweaters and coats. An increase in respiration is affected by an increase in thyroxin secretion. The graph below shows the relationship between external temperature to internal temperature in Ectothermic animal. The problem of osmotic regulation is reduced due to the low level of solutes in the blood. Be Careful. The Causes, Symptoms, and Effects of High and Low Sugar Levels in the Blood, Outline the causes, symptoms, and effects of high and low sugar levels in the blood, It’s important to treat symptoms of high blood sugar right away to help prevent complications. Not all animals can do this physiologically. ! Maintaining favorable condition such as pH and required ionic concentration for the functioning of cells, tissues and organs. https://www.darasaletu.com/2017/09/biology-form-three-topic-5-regulation.html Flattening of body hairs: Hair erector muscles on the surface of the body reduce insulation so that heat loss is simplified. If you know that someone is diabetic and he or she is experiencing these symptoms, help him or her to eat 15 grams of quickly digesting carbohydrate, such as: Low blood sugar can occur for a number of reasons. They may lead to seizures and nervous system damage. Sweat evaporates at the surface of skin with heat. The vice versa occurs during cold weather. Possession of heat under epidermis: fat is a bad conductor of heat, thus prevents heat loss, Use f heating systems in houses Human beings, Possession of sweat glands Sweat glands secrete, Use of Shade: During hot conditions human beings take cover in shade areas to avoid being over heated, Wearing of light-white clothes These reduce absorption of heat during hot condition, Use of air conditioners Air conditioners reduce excess heat in houses, Possession of bladder (fat layer inside the, Amount of salt taken into the body Putting, Skip or forget yourinsulinororal glucose-lowering medicine, Eat too many grams of carbohydrates for the amount ofinsulinyou took, or eat too many carbs in general, Become inactive orexerciseless than usual, Take part in strenuousphysical activity, especially when your blood sugar levels are high andinsulinlevels are low, Nerve damagecausing painful cold or insensitive feet, loss ofhairon the lower extremities, orerectile dysfunction, Stomachand intestinal problems such aschronic constipationordiarrhea, Damage to youreyes, blood vessels, orkidneys, trouble thinking clearly or concentrating, 3 or 4 pieces of hard candy or glucose tablets, some medical conditions, such as hepatitis or kidney disorders, endocrine disorders, such as adrenal gland deficiency. 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